We look at both sides of the issue. Common sense suggests that public school children will do better in smaller classes than in larger classes. Smaller class sizes provide the opportunity for personal attention and additional instructional help when necessary.
Drugs and Testing Drugs and Testing Drug use by athletes has been a controversial issue for many years. Athletes often use artificial stimulants to give them a physical and mental advantage over their opponents.
The use of performance- enhancing drugs can be traced to the ancient Olympic Games where fame and fortune were rewarded, just as today, for athletic success. Drug testing of athletes is becoming common in all sports to one degree or the other.
This raises constitutional issues including the right to privacy The controversial debate about drug testing in athletics due process protections from illegal searches and seizures, particularly since testing involves an analysis of a sample from urine or blood.
This includes common, over-the-counter muscle-building supplements, recovery products, and endurance-enhancing blood doping. Performance-enhancing drugs might be consumed orally or via needle injection.
When the government or a governmental entity such as a public school or public college desires to test a student-athlete for drugs, this constitutes state action. There is no state action for private sports leagues, and therefore the fourth, fifth, and fourteenth Amendment issues are generally not applicable in such context unless such testing is established by contract.
Federal laws that regulate drug use and distribution include the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of Steroids are artificial and synthetic forms of hormones, such as testosterone, that improve muscle building, growth, and repair. Since the government state desires to invade the privacy of athletes by testing their urine or blood for drugs, athletes have constitutional safeguards that allow a challenge to such a test on the grounds of its constitutionality.
Numerous challenges to such policies have failed, and recently courts have given support to the use of mandatory, suspicion- less testing. Still, private organizations have their own testing policies that usually require consent to such policies including appeals as a condition for participating in that league.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons things to be seized.
While many athletes now understand that being tested is a necessary part of the nature of competition, numerous cases have reached the courts to determine whether or not an individual athlete has a legitimate expectation of privacy when it comes to drug testing.
Supreme Court held in Vernonia School District v. Additionally, though there may not be probable cause per se in testing high school athletes, the Supreme Court affirmed that public school districts do have special needs. The Court held that random drug testing was valid since such programs serve a compelling interest in public systems to deter the use of drugs.
Fifth Amendment Another constitutional consideration for drug testing of athletes is the Fifth Amendment, which provides: No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
An athlete should be granted a process for a hearing and appealing a positive drug test result. The right to go to school or participate in athletics is a property right.
The NCAA established its own drug testing program in and comprehensively tests for both illegal street drugs and performance-enhancing drugs.
Whether the NCAA is a state actor  is subject to debate, though the answer seems to be that it is not and therefore is characterized as a private actor. The major aim of professional sports and drug testing appears to be treatment for the offender rather than punishment.
Such a policy is much different than the Olympic Games where punishment and future deterrence appears to be the primary concern. Each has different testing for a variety of drugs and punishments and treatment are different in each league.
Additionally, there is confusion as to what drugs should be banned since the spectators themselves could legally purchase certain performance-enhancing training supplements at the local supermarket while the athletes could be punished for using the same supplements.
Drug testing issues in professional sports center on contract and consent issues rather than constitutional issues. This applies to all players who have not yet retired from the league. All players are tested in April and August, during the preseason. One of the more famous cases involving an Olympic athlete was the use of illegal steroids by Canadian track star Ben Johnson in during the Seoul, Korea, Games.
The Olympic Movement has set the standard for both competition drug testing and out of competition testing.
Olympic caliber athletes have been drug tested throughout their careers, few have truly understood the drug testing process. The ever-changing rules and regulations, as well as the increase in number of doping control programs, while appearing to assist in the fight against doping in sport, have proven to be confusing and sometimes inconsistent.Banned substances in baseball has been an ongoing issue for Major League leslutinsduphoenix.coml players have come forward in recent years to suggest that drug use is rampant in baseball.
David Wells stated that "25 to 40 percent of all Major Leaguers are juiced". Jose Canseco stated on 60 Minutes and in his tell-all book Juiced that as many as 80% of players used steroids, and that he credited. The STAR (Students-Teacher Achievement Ratio) project is a well-known study of a class size reduction program in Tennessee.
The study was conducted with a controlled group of 10, students. Should students be drug tested at school? Should students be drug tested at school? POSTED: some administrators have turned to a more punitive and controversial approach: drug testing students.
Why drug testing – and is it legal?
there are two sides to the debate. Proponents say that: Drug testing allows for early detection and. Firstly, drug-using athletes often beat tests because they have access to specialized medical advice from sports physicians Secondly, there is evidence of collusion .
Although the imposition of testing and strict liability for what is a controversial issue, it is central to controlling drug use.
The deterrent effect of testing is an important part of its value. In the end, however, it is the ethics of the athlete and their entourage that determine whether . Drug testing of athletes is becoming common in all sports to one degree or the other.
This raises constitutional issues including the right to privacy and due process protections from illegal searches and seizures, particularly since testing involves an analysis of a sample from urine or blood.