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Galileo viewed these moons as a smaller Copernican system within the Solar system and used them to support Heliocentrism. Galileo began his telescopic observations in the later part ofand by March was able to publish a small book, The Starry Messenger Sidereus Nunciusdescribing some of his discoveries: Other observations followed, including the phases of Venus and the existence of sunspots.
InGalileo visited the Collegium Romanum in Rome, where the Jesuit astronomers by that time had repeated his observations. Christopher Claviusthe most distinguished astronomer of his age, never was reconciled to the idea of mountains on the Moon, and outside the collegium many still disputed the reality of the observations.
In a letter to Kepler of August Rehabilitation vs incarceration essay complained that some of the philosophers who opposed his discoveries had refused even to look through a telescope: What Rehabilitation vs incarceration essay you have to say about the principal philosophers of this academy who are filled with the stubbornness of an asp and do not want to look at either the planets, the moon or the telescope, even though I have freely and deliberately offered them the opportunity a thousand times?
Truly, just as the asp stops its ears, so do these philosophers shut their eyes to the light of truth. Brahe argued that the distance to the stars in the Copernican system would have to be times greater than the distance from the sun to Saturn. Moreover, the only way the stars could be so distant and still appear the sizes they do in the sky would be if even average stars were gigantic — at least as big as the orbit of the Earth, and of course vastly larger than the sun refer to article on Tychonic System.
Galileo became involved in a dispute over priority in the discovery of sunspots with Christoph Scheinera Jesuit. This became a bitter lifelong feud. Neither of them, however, was the first to recognise sunspots—the Chinese had already been familiar with them for centuries.
Nevertheless, three years later another priest, Tommaso Caccinidid in fact do precisely that, as described below. Bible argument Further information: Heliocentrismthe theory that the Earth was a planet, which along with all the others revolved around the Sun, contradicted both geocentrism and the prevailing theological support of the theory.
Boscaglia had talked to Madame [Christina] for a while, and though he conceded all the things you have discovered in the sky, he said that the motion of the earth was incredible and could not be, particularly since Holy Scripture obviously was contrary to such motion.
The exchange having been reported to Galileo by Castelli, Galileo decided to write a letter to Castelli expounding his views on what he considered the most appropriate way of treating scriptural passages which made assertions about natural phenomena.
Preaching a sermon in Florence at the end ofhe denounced Galileo, his associates, and mathematicians in general a category that included astronomers. Lorini and other Dominicans at the Convent of San Marco considered the letter of doubtful orthodoxy, in part because it may have violated the decrees of the Council of Trent: Quoted in Langford, The Roman Inquisition suspected Galileo of violating the decrees of the Council.
Museo Diocesano Tridentino, Trento. Mark feel that the letter contains many statements which seem presumptuous or suspect, as when it states that the words of Holy Scripture do not mean what they say; that in discussions about natural phenomena the authority of Scripture should rank last By presenting his case there, he hoped to clear his name of any suspicion of heresy, and to persuade the Church authorities not to suppress heliocentric ideas.
In going to Rome Galileo was acting against the advice of friends and allies, and of the Tuscan ambassador to Rome, Piero Guicciardini. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
The question of heliocentrism had first been raised with Cardinal Bellarmine, in the case of Paolo Antonio Foscarinia Carmelite father; Foscarini had published a book, Lettera After some preliminary salutations and acknowledgements, Bellarmine begins by telling Foscarini that it is prudent for him and Galileo to limit themselves to treating heliocentrism as a merely hypothetical phenomenon and not a physically real one.
Further on he says that interpreting heliocentrism as physically real would be "a very dangerous thing, likely not only to irritate all scholastic philosophers and theologians, but also to harm the Holy Faith by rendering Holy Scripture as false. He conceded that if there were conclusive proof, "then one would have to proceed with great care in explaining the Scriptures that appear contrary; and say rather that we do not understand them, than that what is demonstrated is false.
Although he believed that the former may well have been possible, he had "very great doubts" that the latter would be, and in case of doubt it was not permissible to depart from the traditional interpretation of Scriptures.
His final argument was a rebuttal of an analogy that Foscarini had made between a moving Earth and a ship on which the passengers perceive themselves as apparently stationary and the receding shore as apparently moving.
Bellarmine replied that in the case of the ship the passengers know that their perceptions are erroneous and can mentally correct them, whereas the scientist on the Earth clearly experiences that it is stationary and therefore the perception that the Sun, moon and stars are moving is not in error and does not need to be corrected.
Bellarmine found no problem with heliocentrism so long as it was treated as a purely hypothetical calculating device and not as a physically real phenomenon, but he did not regard it as permissible to advocate the latter unless it could be conclusively proved through current scientific standards.
This put Galileo in a difficult position, because he believed that the available evidence strongly favoured heliocentrism, and he wished to be able to publish his arguments.
Galileo later stated that he believed this essay to have been instrumental in the action against Copernicanism that followed in February. Ingoli wrote that the great distance to the stars in the heliocentric theory "clearly proves Galileo did not write a response to Ingoli untilin which, among other arguments and evidence, he listed the results of experiments such as dropping a rock from the mast of a moving ship.NDCI: A Professional Services Division of NADCP National Drug Court Institute Tribal Healing to Wellness Practical Guide to Court Training Incentives and Sanctions.
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Originally written for a competition by the Howard League for Penal Reform for essays on the topic of “Why Prisons Don’t Work”. You can read the winning (and excellent) essays here..
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