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This methodology emphasizes the importance of people's participation i. Its extension strategies and messages are specifically developed and tailored based on the results of a participatory problem identification process on the causes or reasons for farmers' nonadoption, or inappropriate practices, of a given recommended agricultural technology or innovation.
The SEC technology transfer and application approach is needs based and demand driven and has a problem-solving orientation. The SEC programme follows a systems approach, which starts with a farmers' Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice KAP survey whose results are used as planning inputs and benchmark-baseline for summative evaluation purposes.
In addition, a series of practical and participatory approach workshops are conducted to train extension personnel, subject-matter specialists, trainers, and farmer leaders together on the skills of extension programme planning, strategy development, message design and positioning, multimedia materials development, pretesting and production, as well as management planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.
One of the strengths of this approach is in orienting and training relevant extension personnel to apply a systematic, rational, and pragmatic approach to planning, implementing, managing, monitoring, and evaluating regular or routine programmes of an agricultural extension service.
Empirical evaluation studies using information recall and impact surveys, focus group interviews, and management monitoring surveys of strategic extension campaign methods applied to specific FAO-supported extension activities conducted, for instance, in Bangladesh and Malaysia on rat controlThailand on pest surveillance systemMalaysia on weed managementZambia on maize productionMalawi, Jamaica, and Morocco on population educationreported positive changes in farmers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices vis-a-vis the recommended technologies as well as significant economic benefits.
This SEC method has been replicated with FAO assistance in many countries in Asia, Africa, the Near East, and the Caribbean, with topics such as line-sowing method of rice cultivation, maize production, cocoa cultivation, tick-borne disease control, contour tillage, population education, and ploughing with draught-animal power.
In addition to various SEC replications within a country, the multiplier effects of its method are felt beyond national boundaries. SEC is, and should be, an integral part of the programmes of an agricultural extension service.
The effectiveness and efficiency of such a service could be increased because of SEC's emphasis on its problem-solving orientation, participatory planning approach, intensive extension personnel training, multimedia materials development, and extension management, monitoring, and evaluation procedures.
Its activities should be carried out by extension personnel and to support the ministry of agriculture's policies, strategies, and priority programmes. The strategic extension campaign is useful and important to an agricultural extension service for the following reasons: Participatory Planning Approach This participatory approach extension method is responsive to intended beneficiaries' agricultural development problems and information needs because its extension objectives, strategies, methods, messages, and multimedia materials are specifically developed on the basis of survey results of their knowledge, attitudes, and practices KAP vis-a-vis the recommended agricultural technologies.
Such a participatory approach in planning SEC activities increases the degree of relevance, and thus acceptability, of extension messages or recommendations among intended beneficiaries who are consulted during the planning process regarding their priority concerns and needs.
It does not assume the target beneficiaries i. Rather, it tries to understand and assess farmers' local indigenous knowledge, values, and belief system on farming practices, which may be good, need to be improved, or perhaps need to be discouraged. In short, it follows the well-known principles of rural reconstruction: Such a method needs to apply bottom-up and participatory planning procedures which will give high priority in meeting the interests and needs of the target beneficiaries.
Tailoring the SEC messages and activities to the specific needs of the intended beneficiaries would not only increase the chances of success, but also would increase the efficiency in resources utilization.
Strategic Planning and Integrated Systems Approach The SEC method advocates an integrated and holistic approach in extension strategy development, programme planning and management, training, media and materials development, and monitoring and evaluation.
To ensure its relevance to audience needs and to utilize its resources efficiently, it relies heavily on both quantitative data and qualitative information obtained from target beneficiaries i.
It applies a strategic planning approach in programming and managing its activities to achieve maximum outputs or results using minimal inputs or resources in the shortest time possible.
SEC activities such as surveys, strategy and management planning, multimedia materials design and development, training, field implementation, monitoring, and evaluation are integrated as a system, which is also an integrated part of a larger extension programme which has linkages with relevant agencies or units dealing with research, inputs-supplies, training, and marketing.
Human and Behavioural Dimensions In order to minimize the heavy technology bias of many extension activities, the SEC method gives adequate consideration to human behavioural aspects, such as socio-psychological, sociocultural, and socioeconomic factors which may facilitate or impede adoption, or continued practice, of recommended technologies by farmers.
Without sufficient understanding of their positive or negative attitudes and behaviour towards a given technology, the technology transfer process would be slow and ineffective, especially if the extension emphasis is on appropriate technology application by farmers. There is considerable evidence to suggest that nonadoption of a recommended agricultural technology or innovation is often related to, or caused by, nontechnological factors such as social, psychological, cultural, and economic problems.
The SEC method gives due attention to human and environmental factors which may influence the important decision-making process related to agricultural technology adoption and practices.
It employs a behavioural science analysis, based on a participatory needs assessment and problem identification of the target audience, in developing appropriate strategies and tactics to overcome or minimize humanrelated constraints affecting the agricultural technology transfer and application process.
Problem-Solving Orientation The SEC is particularly distinguished in that it normally focuses on specific issues related to a given agricultural technology recommendation.Chapter 10 - Implementing strategic extension campaigns.
Ronny Adhikarya. Ronny Adhikarya. is a Senior Extension Education and Training Methodology Specialist, Agricultural Education and Extension Service, FAO/United Nations, Rome, Italy.. The contents of this chapter are largely taken from several sections of R.
Adhikarya, Strategic extension campaign: A participatory-oriented method of. Adaptability Flexible and works well in a variety of situations, and with various individuals and groups.
Open to different and new ways of doing things; willing to modify one’s preferences and priorities. Inquiry finds that covert unit was established unlawfully, created a climate of intrigue, fear and subterfuge in organisation. Adaptability Flexible and works well in a variety of situations, and with various individuals and groups.
Open to different and new ways of doing things; willing to modify one’s preferences and priorities. The typology is organized in five main sections that can be read in any order based on the reader's interest and familiarity with the subject.
Making Good Strategic Decisions. Para mis visitantes del mundo de habla hispana, este sitio se encuentra disponible en español en: Versión en Español Sitio Espejo para América Latina.
Decision-Making is central to human activity.