Potential hindrances[ edit ] When listening to a person's message, it is common to overlook aspects of the conversation or make judgments before all of the information is presented. Chief among these obstacles are confirmation bias [ citation needed ] and the vividness effect,[ citation needed ] both of which distort the speaker's message by severely affecting the perception of a particular topic. This psychological process proves to have a detrimental effect on communication for several reasons. Whether this is anger or frustration or anything else, it could have a profound impact on that person's perception of the rest of the conversation.
Chapter 4 Types of Listening Different situations require different types of listening. We may listen to obtain information, improve a relationship, gain appreciation for something, make discriminations, or engage in a critical evaluation. While certain skills are basic and necessary for all types of listening receiving, attending, and understandingeach type requires some special skills.
Chapter 5 discusses those special skills and presents guidelines to improve listening behavior in all situations. But before we can fully appreciate the skills and apply the guidelines, we must understand the different types of listening. Listeners are successful insofar as the meaning they assign to messages is as close as possible to that which the sender intended.
Informative listening, or listening to understand, is found in all areas of our lives. Much of our learning comes from informative listening. For example, we listen to lectures or instructions from teachers—and what we learn depends on how well we listen.
In the workplace, we listen to understand new practices or procedures—and how well we perform depends on how well we listen. At times, careful informative listening is crucial—remember the aircraft landing report in chapter 1. At other times, careless listening results in only aggravation or misunderstanding—remember my misunderstanding of my daughter, Missy, as presented in chapter 2.
Whatever the case, effective informative listening demands that you concentrate squarely on the message—and know its source.
There are three key variables related to informative listening. Knowing these variables can help you begin to improve your informative listening skills; that is, you will become increasingly successful in understanding what the speaker means.
The precise relationship between vocabulary and listening has never been determined, but it is clear that increasing your vocabulary will increase your potential for better understanding. Having a genuine interest in words and language, making a conscious effort to learn new words, breaking down unfamiliar words into their component parts—all these things will help you improve your vocabulary.
Another good way to improve your vocabulary is to be sensitive to the context in which words are used. Sometimes, unfamiliar words appear with synonyms: Her attractive, winsome personality won us over.
At other times, a contrast is drawn: He is usually quite energetic, but today he seemed lethargic. Occasionally, an unfamiliar word is used to summarize a situation or quality: He passed for over yards, ran for 50 more, and his three punts averaged over 45 yards; he turned in a stellar performance.
Look for these and other contextual clues to help you learn new words and improve your vocabulary. You can remember times when another person was not concentrating on what you were saying—and you probably can remember times when you were not concentrating on something that someone was saying to you.
She was not coming home that night, and I had to leave the house earlier than usual the next morning. I had to drive from Montgomery to Mobile, where I was to give a speech—and all my notes and visual aids were in my automobile.
Fortunately for me, Teri had left the telephone number of her friend, and I was able to retrieve my automobile.
Sometimes listeners try to divide their attention between two competing stimuli. At other times, listeners are preoccupied with something other than the speaker of the moment.
Sometimes listeners are too ego-involved, or too concerned with their own needs to concentrate on the message being delivered. Or perhaps they lack curiosity, energy, or interest. Many people simply have not learned to concentrate while listening.
Others just refuse to discipline themselves, lacking the motivation to accept responsibility for good listening.
Concentration requires discipline, motivation, and acceptance of responsibility. Memory is an especially crucial variable to informative listening; you cannot process information without bringing memory into play.
More specifically, memory helps your informative listening in three ways. It allows you to recall experiences and information necessary to function in the world around you. In other words, without memory you would have no knowledge bank.
It establishes expectations concerning what you will encounter. You would be unable to drive in heavy traffic, react to new situations, or make common decisions in life without memory of your past experiences. It allows you to understand what others say. Without simple memory of the meaning of words, you could not communicate with anyone else.Informational listening is less active than many of the other types of listening.
When we’re listening to learn or be instructed we are taking in new information and facts, we are not criticising or analysing. The first four chapters discussed the need for effective listening, fallacies about listening, the process of listening, and the types of listening.
They provided the background you need to improve your listening skills. This chapter is a prescriptive one. It offers practical suggestions on how to. Using the textbook to guide you, analyze your strengths and weaknesses in terms of the text's guidelines for effective informational listening and effective rational listening.
Identify two listening skills you would like to improve and describe how you plan to develop greater competence in each%(13). listening isn't automatic, we hear but don't always listen consists of several stages: 1. attending 2. understanding 3. responding 4. remembering effective and informational listening Listening Listening is a skill that takes work and does not come naturally.
Comprehension listening is also known as content listening, informative listening and full listening. One difference is the comprehensive or informational listening could be done before the.
Informational listening is listening with the goal of learning, understanding, and grasping information. Informational listening is distinguished from several other forms of listening such as.