There are funerals and prayers, parades and flag waving. And where the fighting is, things are a lot less glamorous. He entered the Great War full of enthusiasm and patriotic fervor, ready to fight and die for his country. As in, they were much worse.
The sixteen-year-long war in Mozambique Insight on Africa, 5, 1 Emerson, The Battle for Mozambique: Whilst clearly a national struggle, it also brought in regional players like Rhodesia and South Africa and even Tanzania and Zambia-all of whom had a vested interest in the outcome of this struggle for supremacy.
Ordinary Mozambicans paid dearly for the war-an estimated 1 million dead; millions more made refugees or internally displaced, hundreds of thousands maimed and the economy in ruins. Previous studies of the Mozambican war are problematic at best-having embraced the narrative emanating from one or the other side.
In addition, other studies, too, found themselves rather naively deeming the sophisticated propaganda emanating from apartheid South Africa as reflecting the 'truth', and this propaganda soon found its way into mainstream academic literature.
In seeking to discover the facts behind the myths Stephen Emerson's latest book on this much misunderstood conflict is a must-read for those seeking to understand this turbulent period of Mozambican and Southern African history. Emerson's work is a veritable tour de force based not merely on the existing academic literature but also on face-to-face interviews with war veterans, extensive email correspondence with former belligerents, field notes, and government and rebel documents which he painstakingly gathered for the past 15 years.
What emerges from the pages of this erudite book is the definitive account of the Mozambican civil war. Academics will find the thorough research and the intellectual rigour engaged in praise-worthy, whilst policy-makers will find Emerson's lessons learned from the carnage on the battlefield or the successful mediation which resulted in the signing of the General Peace Agreement on 4 October and which ended the conflict of interest.
Whilst Emerson regards his book as a military history of the conflict waged in Mozambique-it is far more than that. The reader is exposed to the strategic calculations of key actors as they have to respond to changing circumstances.
Rhodesia, for instance, viewed the loss of Portuguese Mozambique as a military disaster of epic proportion as it now had its entire 1, kilometre-long eastern flank of the country exposed to infiltration by guerrilla forces of Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army ZANLA.
FRELIMO, meanwhile, had to respond to changes such as the imminent collapse of the Soviet Union-its key supporter and supplier-and under President Joaquim Chissano, had to mend its broken relationship with the West as well as abandon its Marxist orientation.
RENAMO, on the other hand, was forced to confront strategic challenges of its own-the death of its leader Andre Matsangaissa inthe loss of Salisbury as independent Zimbabwe and the declining support from Pretoria as the winds of change also found its way into South Africa.
The book also contains much new information. Rather, there was a remarkable bottom-up approach. Indeed, it could be argued that the General Peace Agreement merely built on the localised ceasefires which became more generalised as war-weary local FRELIMO and RENAMO commanders engaged in local peace initiatives supported by an increasingly disillusioned and traumatised local population.
In addition, for the first time, Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe's own pivotal role in the peace process is revealed. Both men had very similar backgrounds-guerrilla fighters, Shona-speakers and Catholic educated.
At the conclusion of the first round of peace talks, Mugabe walked up to Dhlakama and said, 'You have your dignity and you know what your are fighting for.
Stephen Emerson's thoughtful, incisive and highly readable account of the Mozambican civil war is a must for students, academics and policy-makers who seek to understand Mozambique's past and future.
This is a detailed military history of the war, based on interviews with participants and access to some archives. Author Stephen Emerson has a background in US military intelligence and the book is particularly good on Renamo and on Zimbabwean military involvement, but less good on Mozambique where he did not have access to archives or to senior military people.
As a journalist who covered the war, I find it interesting that although the book corrects many details, it also shows that much of what we knew or suspected at the time proves to be true. Emerson stresses that this was a cold war proxy war, and that Renamo was only created and survived because of the support of Rhodesia and apartheid South Africa.
He provides new information on the Rhodesian creation of Renamo. He details the extensive command, logistic, supply and training support by South Africa, which at one point was airlifting tonnes of material a year to Renamo, as well as substantial quantities carried by boats.
There were South African training teams in Mozambique, and Renamo was supplied with a radio system more sophisticated than that used by the Zimbabwean and Mozambican government. By the lates Afonso Dhlakama did command a large and surprisingly mobile military force, but it collapsed when South African support was withdrawn.
Although the book stops atit gives important pointers on current issues. Emerson notes that "Renamo insurgents have been blamed for much of the brutality unleashed against civilians during the war.
He concludes, as many of us did at the time, that Renamo's main goals were military - cutting lines of communication such as road and rail, damaging the economy, and "the destruction of symbols of government power and presence, such as schools, health clinics, police stations, and Frelimo party offices.The word anthem has a few different meanings.
The one most pertinent to this poem is: an unusually rousing popular song that typifies or is identified with a particular subculture, movement, or. In a sea of challenging years for the game industry, has been particularly hard.
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- Is Canadian Culture Doomed to Become American. As Alvin Toffler once said, “The wider any culture is spread, the thinner it gets”1. Anthem for Doomed Youth by Wilfred Owen - CCEA The poem describes memorial tributes to dead soldiers, ironically comparing the sounds of war to the choirs and bells which usually sound at funerals.
Anthem For Doomed Youth First, Owen relates to his audience how horrible going to war is. The titleof Owen’s poem is “Anthem for Doomed Youth”. This meaningful title conveys a strong, gloomy feeling; usually an anthem is a joyous song of celebration but when coupled with “Doomed Youth”, anthem takes on a whole new meaning that.