Social security in Australia Prior to in Australia, charitable assistance from benevolent societies, sometimes with financial contributions from the authorities, was the primary means of relief for people not able to support themselves. Queensland legislated a similar system in before the Australian labor Commonwealth government led by Andrew Fisher introduced a national aged pension under the Invalid and Old-Aged Pensions Act A national invalid disability pension was started inand a national maternity allowance was introduced in Social programs in Canada Canada has a welfare state in the European tradition; however, it is not referred to as "welfare", but rather as "social programs".
History[ edit ] This "History" section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this "History" section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. June Learn how and when to remove this template message The origins of the program date back towhen a Pacific White-sided Dolphin was acquired for hydrodynamic studies seeking to improve torpedo performance.
This research has now resumed with the benefit of modern-day technology; among the possible drag-reducing mechanisms being studied for human use are skin compliance, biopolymersand boundary-layer heating.
Inthe animals' intelligence, exceptional diving ability, and trainability led to the foundation of a new research program at Point Mugu, Californiawhere a research facility was built on a sand spit between Mugu Lagoon and the ocean.
The intention was to study the dolphins' senses and capabilities, such as their natural sonar and deep-diving physiology, and to determine how dolphins and sea lions might be used to perform useful tasks, such as searching for and marking objects in the water. A major accomplishment was the discovery that trained dolphins and sea lions could be reliably worked untethered in the open sea.
Tuffy was also trained to locate and guide lost divers to safety. In the NMMP was classified and has since evolved into a major black budget program.
The animals are trained in San Diego Bay ; dolphin handlers can frequently be seen on the bay, where specialized small boats are used to transport dolphins between their pens and the training areas. Other locations are sometimes used for specific research, such as San Clemente Island in the Channel Islands of Californiaand torpedo test ranges in Seattle and Canada.
The program's stated animal activities include protecting ports and Navy assets from swimmer attack, locating and assisting in the recovery of expensive exercise and training targets, and locating potentially dangerous sea mines.
There are five marine mammal teams, each trained for a specific type of mission. These teams can be deployed at 72 hours' notice by ship, aircraft, helicopter, and land vehicle to regional conflicts or staging areas around the world.
NMMP dolphins, such as the one pictured here wearing a locating pinger, performed mine clearance work in the Persian Gulf during the Iraq War. Mine hunting[ edit ] Three of the marine mammal teams are trained to detect enemy sea mineswhich constitute a major hazard to U.
In operations, a dolphin awaits a cue from its handler before starting to search a specific area using its natural echolocation. The dolphin reports back to its handler, giving particular responses to communicate whether a target object is detected. If a mine-like target is detected, the handler sends the dolphin to mark the location of the object by releasing a buoy, so it can be avoided by Navy vessels or neutralized by Navy divers.
Mine-clearance dolphins were deployed to the Persian Gulf during the Iraq War in The Navy said these dolphins were effective in helping to detect more than antiship mines and underwater booby traps from the port of Umm Qasr.
MK 6 was first operationally deployed with dolphins during the Vietnam War from to and in Bahrain from to This device is attached to a buoy which then explodes, alerting the Navy personnel of the intruder.
Sea lions carry a similar device in their mouth, but instead attach it by hand-cuffing one of the enemy's limbs. The animals depend on their superior underwater senses and swimming ability to defend against counterattacks.
Object recovery[ edit ] An NMMP sea lion attaches a recovery line to a piece of test equipment during training. In this role they can out-perform human divers, who are restricted to short working times and limited repeat diving.
The team has trained in the recovery of dummy victims in a simulated airplane crash. Attack missions[ edit ] The Navy says that it has never trained its marine mammals for attack missions against people or ships. The Navy identifies the following animal species as having been used or studied by the program at various times:Evaluating the Welfare State: Social and Political Perspectives together with its companion Social Policy Evaluation: An Economic Perspective is the outgrowth of an international and interdisciplinary conference on policy evaluation held at Tel Aviv University in December 10 The Scope of Evaluation Activities in the United States Book Edition: 1st Edition.
Here is a list of 80+ federal welfare programs. An estimated over million people — about a third of the U.S. population (%) 3, received aid from at least one of these programs at an average cost of $9, per recipient.
Nearly two-thirds lived in households with children. Grants to States for Low-Income Housing in Lieu of Low. Introductory Works. A number of excellent introductory materials and resources are available online including Building Healthy Communities, and the W.
Kellogg Foundation. The Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health (Centers for Disease Control ) and the Program Evaluation Toolkit (Porteous, et al. ) both lead the user through the stages of program evaluation. Introduction “Social welfare” is an encompassing and imprecise term, but most often it is defined in terms of “organized activities,” “interventions,” or some other element that suggests policy and programs to respond to recognized social problems or to improve the well-being of those at risk.
Welfare in the United States commonly refers to the federal government welfare programs that have been put in place to assist the unemployed or underemployed. Help is extended to the poor through a variety of government welfare programs that include Medicaid, the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program, and Aid to Families with Dependent .
|A profile of the foreign-born using 2014 and 2015 Census Bureau data||Ohio Food Assistance Program Welfare in the United States commonly refers to the federal government welfare programs that have been put in place to assist the unemployed or underemployed. The history of welfare in the U.|
|Evaluations of State Welfare-to-Work Programs | MDRC||Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file. For assistance, please send e-mail to:|
|ReliefWeb Subscription Benefits||Program evaluation focuses on addressing whether the intervention is working.|
|Some of these programs include funding for public schools, job training, SSI benefits and medicaid.|
|That suitable place, in the American context, would provide opportunities for work and human meaning and a reasonable amount of security from want and assault, promote fairness and evaluation based on individual merit, and be economically productive and stable. Underneath, of course, is an assumption that human society can be organized and governed to produce and provide these things, and that because it is feasible to do so, there is a moral obligation to bring it to fruition.|
Results of Evaluations of Child Abuse Prevention Programs Differential Program Evaluation Model in Child Protection Lalayants () Child Welfare,91(4) View Abstract United States. Children's Bureau. Availability: View Download (PDF - KB) Year Published: